Treatment with a high energy diode laser

What is a laser and why laser treatment is the soft, painless, and most effective medical method.

Here we will try to give brief information about the processes that happen on laser treated biological tissue and why the laser is such a useful tool.

 

 

What is the laser if we look at it simply as a light device.

 

(Here we will only look at the most commonly usage of the dental diode laser).

Nothing special. A light source, a little complicated, but ultimately only a source of light.

The light emitted by the lasers for medical purposes is usually from the visible or near to the visible spectrum to which our cells are naturally adapted. The one that is used in dentistry is from 1 to 2 watts. (For comparison, usually in the rooms where we live, we use a few hundred watts for lighting only.) One feature of lasers is that light is only in one color (for example, only red, only green, only infrared, or any other color). The other feature is that the rays are relatively parallel and can easily be focused and inserted into optical fibers to reach the treatment areas.

 

                                                           

      lasers                         Fiber                  Treatment with lasers

Exiting the light guide (fiber), the light ray is no longer parallel to the light, and at an different angle it forms different light spots, depending on the distance from the top of the light guide to the tissue. Thus, to the processing area, the dentist can easily achieves different types of interactions, from soft stimulating radiation, to the formation of thin, painless micro cuts.

 

What happens to a cell of biological tissue when treat it by laser.

If the light power is low (less than or equal to the intensity of sunlight falling on our body), the cell will absorb a certain amount of light energy and will develop powerful stimulating processes.

If the cell is diseased and its removal is necessary, it is only sufficient to increase the intensity of light, the cell will absorb more energy, its heat will begin and the first irreversible transformations will occur. The proteins contained in the cell will be coagulated, the cell will die, and then it will be removed from the protective functions of the body.

Further increasing the intensity of light will lead to carbonization of the cell, and if the increase in intensity is more abrupt, it can directly evaporate.

                                                              

Cell schema                                     Coagulated cell                                 Carbonated cell

 

How does tissue respond to laser treatment

When light passes through biological tissue, it is rapidly diminished in intensity due to the effects of swallowing, distraction, and so on. In this way, the penetration process is self-limiting, which is a guarantee for safe work by the dentist. The amount of energy absorbed in the top layer will be greatest, the lower one will be less, the lowest will be the smallest, and so on, until the process is completely dampened.

Let us consider the process of absorbing sufficiently intense light only as thermal. First, they will coagulate the tops of structures with a high absorption coefficient – the nerve endings and blood vessels. This determines the lack of pain and blood when working with a laser on living tissue.

If laser power is enough and it passed several times, on the tissue is formed a cut, characterized by several successively arranged layers – carbonized, below it – coagulated and underneath a layer of highly activated cells. The coagulated tissue seals the cut and serves as a dressing. The presence of activated tissue is the factor contributing to the high rate of healing in cut made by a laser.

                   1.Evaporated tissue;   2. Carbonized tissue;   3. Coagulated tissue;  4. Stimulated tissue.

Unlike traditional surgical incisions, where healing starts at the site of thread sewing, when used in light, the healing process begins with highly activated cells from the bottom of the incision to its beginnings.This also determines the specific feature of the healed wound – no rust and no scarring.

 

 

These combinations of phenomenal light properties have made the laser a preferred treatment tool for both dentists and we like patients.

Information about high energy diode lasers can be found at www.opticalaser.eu